you've mastered the fine points of line, it's time to look at
the picture to the left, you may notice a higher degree of realism
than in the example image from the previous section on line. This
is due to the use of shading, which, when properly done, will
trick the eye into believing that a two-dimensional image actually
exists in three-dimensional space.
2f) This detail of the man's head permits us to see that a combination
of lines and shading were used to render his face and hair. The
major lines and features of the face and hair were first sketched
in lightly, then the pencil was used to put in the values of the
major planes--forehead, jawline, cheek bones, the side of the
nose, etc. Several guiding strands of hair were also drawn initially
and then blocked in with dark shading while allowing enough lighter
areas of the locks to show through to keep the mass sufficiently
2g) The torso of the figure is primarily modelled with only tonal
shading. There are few actual lines involved in this area. Instead,
the musculature of the chest is rendered by seamless shading that
attempts to duplicate the smoothness of human skin.
2h) Directional shading in this detail shows how shading can be
used to simulate the texture of fabric.